UTI is the result of response of the urinary tract to the bacterial infection, usually associated with bacteria and pus cells in urine. Normally, URINE IS FREE OF BACTERIA. UTIs are common, affect men and women of all age groups and vary in their symptoms and sequelae. Bowels are the most common source of bacteria, which ascend through urethra into urinary bladder and upwards into.
Uncomplicated UTI: infection in a healthy patient with structurally and functionally normal urinary tract
Complicated UTI: urinary tract is structurally or functionally abnormal, patient has other concurrent illnesses or is a child/elderly and/or bacteria are more dangerous or resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Re-infection: re-introduction of bacteria from outside after successful treatment.
Bacterial persistence: recurrent UTI caused by the same bacteria, which has reemerged from some focus within the urinary tract, e.g. prostate, stone
Once a patient develops UTI, he/she is likely to develop more subsequent infections. Possibility of recurrent UTI increases with number of previous infections.
Presence of bacteria in urine is known as bacteriuria. It is more common in women as compared to men in all age groups. Almost half of women suffer from UTI in their lifetime.
The incidence of UTI increases during pregnancy, diabetes, hospitalization, catheterization, spinal cord injury, etc.